Performed examinations

Interview

We collect a thorough and comprehensive interview on medical problems (including genetic background), sociological, environmental and economic context, addictions, quality of life, diet, physical activity, and, in the elderly (≥65 years), mental state and geriatric assessment.

Biological material collection

We collect samples of blood, urine, stool, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid. Fasting blood samples are collected on serum, EDTA, heparine and sodium fluoride. All samples are stored in Biobank of Medical University of Bialystok at temperature -80°C. Our material is suitable for genomic analysis, microRNA, proteomic analysis and classic substances assessed by bio and immunochemical methods). In addition, it is planned to isolate mononuclear leukocyte .

Oral glucose tolerance test

The standard test, performed in individuals without history of diabetes, includes measuring fasting plasma glucose, administration of solution containing 75g of glucose, glucose measurement after 60 and 120 minutes.

Anthropometric measurements

Our measurements include height, weight, circumferences of neck, waist, abdomen, hips and thighs of the subjects. Additionally, length of the second and fourth finger is measured (second to fourth finger ratio).

Blood pressure measurement

Blood pressure is measured on nondominant upper limb in standardized way on 2 separate visits. Therefore we have an opportunity to diagnose arterial hypertension.

Varicose veins- according to CEAP scale

(details on request)

Peripheral oedema – according to 4-grade scale

(details on request)

Body composition InBody (electrical bioimpedance)

All standard measurements are available, including weight, BMI, lean body mass, percentage of lean body mass, body fat mass, percentage of fat tissue, gynoid fat mass, android fat mass, total body water level, intracellular water, extracellular water.

DXA (dual – beam X-ray absorptiometry)

All standard measurements are available, including bone mineral density (T-score, Z-score), the mass of lean and fat tissue in a given area and throughout the body.

Thyroid ultrasound

Performed with Vivid™9 (General Electrics). It includes thyroid lobes measurements in longitudinal and transverse projections, calculation of volume of thyroid gland, assessment echogenicity of thyroid parenchyma, assessment of vascularization with color Doppler, focal changes in thyroid gland (nodular disease). Data is stored as raw data (DICOM files) as well as assessment and measurements in database.

Liver and gall bladder ultrasound

Performed with Vivid™9 (General Electrics). It includes standard measurements of the liver, assessment of structure and echogenicity in longitudinal and transverse sections. Any focal changes are reported. Gall bladder and bile ducts are checked for deposits, seize and thickening of the walls. Data is stored as raw data (DICOM files) as well as assessment and measurements in database.

Echocardiohraphy

Performed with Vivid™9 (General Electrics). It includes two-dimensional (2D) imaging, color doppler, continuous wave doppler, pulse doppler and tissue doppler imaging. Basic measurements and calculations are performed during examination, including left ventricular ejection fraction calculated with Simpson method. Additional analysis may be performed as post-processing in the ECHO-pack system. Data is stored as raw data (DICOM files) as well as assessment and measurements in database.

Carotid ultrasound

Performed with Vivid™9 (General Electrics). It includes two-dimensional (2D) imaging in four sections: common cervical segment, bifurcation, internal and external cervical space in transverse and longitudinal projections. The assessment of the presence of stenoses and atherosclerotic plaques is performed in every segment of the arteries. Doppler techniques are used: Color to detect plaques with reduced echogenicity, and Pulsed-wave (PW) for the differentiation of the internal and external carotid artery, as well as for the possible assessment of the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis. Intima media thickness (IMT) is measured in post-processing on the back wall of the common carotid artery. Data is stored as raw data (DICOM files) as well as assessment and measurements in database.

Fibroscan – noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis and steatosis

Fibroscan is an ultrasound device that measures noinvasively liver fibrosis and steatosis. Data is availabble as values (kPa for fibrosis and dB/m for steatosis) as well as scores.

ECG

Standard 12-lead ECG is performed with Amedtec CardioPart 12 USB device. Data is available as images as well as raw data.

Ankle-brachial index (ABI), central pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index

PWV and augmentation index are measures of arterial wall stiffness. All parameters are measured with Vascular Explorer device. Data is available in xml files.

Advanced glycation ends products (AGEs) in the skin

AGEs are indicator of cardiovascular risk and risk of diabetes. We measure it noninvasively based on skin fluorescence assessment with AGE Reader device. Values from 2 measurements are available.

Rhinometry

It is a measure of nasal blockage, assessed with Acoustic Rhinometer (GM Instruments A1).

Exhaled breath condensate

It is collected with R Tube device. The samples are stored in -80 degrees Celsius.

Measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide

It is a derivative of the concentration of this gas in the blood and refelcts exposure to smoke, in particular in smokers. It is evaluated with Micro+ Smokerlyzer™ device (Bedfont Scientific Ltd).

Functional tests of the respiratory system

We perform static and dynamic spirometry, pletysmography, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and level of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO). All procedures are performed with BodyBox 5500 cabin.

Spiroergometry

A diagnostic procedure that allows a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the response and interaction of the heart, cardiovascular system, respiration and gas exchange during the gradual increase of the load. Performed on a cycloergometer with Vyntus CPX system (Jaeger Co.), for previous tests COSMED Quark CPET system was used. All standard measurements are available and stored in xls files. They include: VO2max, anaerobic threshold, maximal RER value, cardiovascular functions (heart rate and blood pressure changes, ECG changes), and ventilation (VE, VE/VCO2, VE/VO2, VE/VCO2 slope), PETO2, PETCO2, OUES index.

Voice recording

The voice may contain important information about health. Some voice changes are not recognized through hearing and can be detected only in computer analysis. For the record we use ZOOM H6 device and store data in wave format. All participants are asked to read standardized text and then to talk spontaneously for up to 5 minutes about neutral topic, like the weather. In some cases we additionally record voice samples during telephone contact. We plan to start recording via mobile application.

Handgrip test

It is a measure of muscle strength, performed with SAEHAN DHD-1 dynamometer. The test includes 10 measurements using alternately left and right hands. The interval between measurements using the same hand is at least 15 seconds.

Ophthalmological examination

It includes fundus photography with CR-2 Plus AF Non Mydriatic Camera (stored as jpeg files), non-contact tonometry (intraocular pressure measurements, Topcon CT tonometer) and autorefractometry (measuring visual acuity, Topcon KR 8900 Autorefractor Keratometer).

Assessment for hirsutism

Females aged 20-40 years are tested for hirsutism in Ferriman and Gallwey scale. This test is based on proband`s self-assessment verified additionally by member of our research team during antropometric measurements. Hirsutism is diagnosed when the patient is scored at least 8 points.

Assessment of depression

We use Beck and HADS scales. Total scale values are available for analysis as all the answers to asked questions.

Geriatric evaluation

In people over 65, an additional geriatric evaluation is carried out. It includes geriatric interview (containing questions about typical health problems related to the quality of life of older people), cognitive tests (the TYM test, MMSE, MoCA, clock drawing test), assessment of walking and functional fitness (Timed Up and Go), Geriatric Depression Scale, screening for age-related macular degeneration (the Amsler Grid) and assessment of smell disorders (Sniffin Sticks Test).

Polysomnography

For screening polysomnography we use Infoscan MED Recorder and Medium24 platform. The following parameters are monitored in the study: blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, pulse curves, ECG, air flows through the nose and mouth as well as chest and abdominal movements. AHI is calculated and raw data is available.

Dental Examination

During detailed oral inspection we assess hygiene habits, tooth decay using the CAST indicator (Caries Assessment and Treatment Spectrum), bleeding from the gingival pouch after probing, depth of the gingival pouch measured at 6 points on the tooth surface with the WHO periodontal probe, trailer loss, gingival recession, oral hygiene evaluated with the OHI-S index ( Simplified-Oral higiene Index ) for tile and stone and API ( Aproximal Plaque Index ). Next, we assess changes on the oral mucosa, tactile pain of the head area, ranges of jaw movements, impairment of temporomandibular joint function, muscle and temporomandibular joint pain, prosthetic status (type and extent of the prosthesis, the date the last prosthesis was made).

Magnetic resonance of the whole body

We use Biograph mMR, 3.0 T System (Siemens). We perform screening scan of the whole body. Additional sequences are performed for head, chest, hip joints + small pelvis, vertebral spine, heart.